OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of neuropsychological outcomes in individuals with type 1 diabetes compared to individuals with type 2 diabetes or without diabetes, and to evaluate the association of diabetes status and microvascular/macrovascular complications with neuropsychological outcomes.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used a nationally representative healthcare claims database of privately insured individuals (1/1/2001-12/31/2018) to identify individuals with type 1 diabetes. Propensity score matching was used as a quasi-randomization technique to match type 1 diabetes individuals to type 2 diabetes individuals and controls. Diabetes status, microvascular/macrovascular complications (retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, stroke, myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, amputations), and neuropsychological outcomes (mental health, cognitive, chronic pain, addiction, sleep disorders) were defined using ICD-9/10 codes. Logistic regression determined associations between diabetes status, microvascular/macrovascular complications, and neuropsychological outcomes.

RESULTS: We identified 184,765 type 1 diabetes individuals matched to 524,602 type 2 diabetes individuals and 522,768 controls. With the exception of cognitive disorders, type 2 diabetes individuals had the highest prevalence of neuropsychological outcomes, followed by type 1 diabetes, and controls. After adjusting for the presence of microvascular/macrovascular complications, type 1 diabetes was not significantly associated with a higher risk of neuropsychological outcomes; however, type 2 diabetes remained associated with mental health, cognitive, and sleep disorders. The presence of microvascular/macrovascular complications was independently associated with each neuropsychological outcome regardless of diabetes status.

CONCLUSION: Microvascular/macrovascular complications are associated with a high risk of neuropsychological outcomes regardless of diabetes status. Therefore, preventing microvascular and macrovascular complications will likely help reduce the likelihood of neuropsychological outcomes either as the result of similar pathophysiologic processes or by preventing the direct and indirect consequences of these complications. For individuals with type 2 diabetes, risk factors beyond complications (such as obesity) likely contribute to neuropsychological outcomes.

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Frontiers in Endocrinology

First Page


Last Page