Characteristics, Management, and Outcomes of Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Experiencing a Major Bleeding Event While on Rivaroxaban
Rivaroxaban, the first oral direct factor Xa inhibitor, was approved for stroke prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation in 2011. Limited data are available regarding major bleeding in a clinical practice setting. The purpose of this study is to describe the patient characteristics, management, and outcomes of major bleeding events in patients receiving rivaroxaban for atrial fibrillation. This retrospective, single health system study identified patients with rivaroxaban having a major bleeding event between July 2011 and June 2014. Patients were identified through adverse event reporting or by cross-referencing rivaroxaban with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis codes for atrial fibrillation and hemorrhage, with and without transfusion. A total of 60 patients were identified. The mean age of patients was 80.3 ± 7.4 years. The most common bleed sites were gastrointestinal (63.3%) and intracranial (26.7%). Higher dose than recommended based on renal function was present in 35% of patients and concurrent antiplatelet therapy occurred in 70%. Activated prothrombin complex concentrate was utilized in 30% of patients and recombinant factor VIIa in 6.7%. A procedure or surgery was performed for bleed management in 10 patients. Anticoagulation was held at discharge in 76% of patients. A total of 6 patients died during hospital admission, 5 of whom experienced an intracranial hemorrhage. In conclusion, patients experiencing a rivaroxaban major bleeding event were elderly, often renally impaired, and receiving concurrent antiplatelet therapy. In-hospital mortality was 10%. The majority of patients (76%) had anticoagulation therapy held at discharge.